This labyrinth of exotic features is present along the edge of Russia’s Chaunskaya Bay (vivid blue half circle) in northeastern Siberia. Two major rivers, the Chaun and Palyavaam, flow into the bay, which in turn opens into the Arctic Ocean. Ribbon lakes and bogs are present throughout the area, created by depressions left by receding glaciers.
The Matusevich Glacier flows toward the coast of East Antarctica, pushing through a channel between the Lazarev Mountains and the northwestern tip of the Wilson Hills. Constrained by surrounding rocks, the river of ice holds together. But stresses resulting from the glacier’s movement make deep crevasses, or cracks, in the ice. After passing through the channel, the glacier has room to spread out as it floats on the ocean. The expanded area and the jostling of ocean waves prompts the ice to break apart, which it often does along existing crevasses.
This Landsat 7 image of Guinea-Bissau, a small country in West Africa, shows the complex patterns of the country’s shallow coastal waters, where silt carried by the Geba and other rivers washes out into the Atlantic Ocean. This is a false-color composite image made using infrared, red and blue wavelengths to bring out details in the silt
Along the southeastern coast of Greenland, an intricate network of fjords funnels glacial ice to the Atlantic Ocean. During the summer melting season, newly calved icebergs join slabs of sea ice and older, weathered bergs in an offshore slurry that the southward-flowing East Greenland Current sometimes swirls into stunning shapes. Exposed rock of mountain peaks, tinted red in this image, hints at a hidden landscape.
Unlike certain specific organelles found in all animals, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) does very different things depending on the kind of cell to which it is attached. About the most general you can get is that the rough ER makes various enzymes and receptor sites, while the smoother ER synthesizes cell membrane phospholipids, steroids and other lipids. All cells use the ER for transportation and storage of the various products it synthesizes and much of the lumen volume is simply dedicated to keeping “spare parts” until they are needed. In the digital videos presented above, human osteosarcoma epithelial cells (U2OS line) are expressing a fusion of mEmerald fluorescent protein and an endoplasmic reticulum targeting signal.