The ring of proteins being studied, labelled C in blue, are part of a molecular machine (ATP-driven proton pump) that rotates to move protons across a membrane.
Our cells are filled with complexes that can contain dozens of proteins, all with precise interactions that ensure the complex comes together and functions in a consistent manner. These complexes, which can contain dozens of individual proteins, often have activities that mimic those of human-produced equipment, and have earned the nickname “molecular machines” accordingly.
Advances in DNA sequencing have allowed us to calculate what the earlier proteins must have looked like. And scientists have now started to engineer DNA sequences that “resurrect” these long dead proteins, and examine how they function
Dark nebulae composed of gas and dust provide the raw material for the star formation process. After becoming free of their birth shroud, the most massive stars, blue and hot, emit radiation causing the red glow of the hydrogen gas.