A helical TALE protein molecule wrapped around a double helix of DNA. TALE stands for “Transcription Activator-Like Effectors”, they are produced by Xanthomonas bacteria when entering a plant cell. They manipulate the host cell by switching on certain genes that make the plant cell more susceptible to infection. TALE subunits bind to the nucleotides of DNA in a 1:1 ratio, and each subunit has a pair of amino acids that is specific to a single DNA base. This enables the TALEs to recognize and activate specific sequences of DNA.